By the end of 1400, the
ethic and esthetic values of the Renaissance became weak.
Florence, the city
where this cultural style started, lost its importance, with the
exception of Michelangelo and Leonardo, who started their artistic
career in the city.
Rome became the new
artistic epicentre, especially after the return of the Popes from
Avignon. This period had a great effect on Rome, which was
ornamented with new structures, and rebuilt by the Popes.
Some important artists
like Michelangelo, Raffaello and Bramante brought the new ideas of
Classicism. The works of Raffaello and Bramante fully expressed the
confidence in the classic period. This century was, actually full of
dramatic events, from the Protestant Reform, to the Catholic
Counter-Reformation and the loss of political stability.
All these events caused
a desire of changes even in the artistic field. The art was not
science anymore, but a new dramatic research of the reasons of the
The political and
Social Changes constantly influenced the works of many italian
Leonardo made a
separation between art and science, Michelangelo worked on the
relationship between the sacred and the Human Nature (The Last
Judjement - Cappella Sistina).
Leonardo went beyond
the traditional Rule of Perspective and this represented his most
prolific period as artist and as intellectual.
At the same time,
Michelangelo created a new concept of Space, which became larger
than the usual human limits. (Cappella Sistina, Bibliteca
Laurenziana, Progetto per la Cupola di San Pietro).
The artistic education
of Raffaello Sanzio was a lot different respect the other artists.
He started in Urbino and his first works still reflected the classic
style of 1400 (Sogno del Cavaliere, Le Tre Grazie, Madonna del
Even Venice reflected
at this time the common sense of uneasiness.
A new Relationship
between the Human Being and the Nature emerged, as represented in
some works of Veronese and Giorgione.
Tiziano learnt a lot
from Giorgione’s Paintings and created his own personal style based
on the importance of colors (Le due Veneri Giacenti, Ritratto di
Carlo V). He had a very important role in the artistic background of
Venice. A lot of important painters like Tintoretto and Bassano
sought inspiration from Tiziano’s works.
Michelangelo refused the usual concept of geometric and immutable
By this tim, the High
Renaissance Painting evolved into Mannerism. The main artists of
this new expression of art were: Pontormo and Rosso Fiorentino.
di Santa Felicita) worked on the classic forms and simmetries; Rosso
Fiorentino focused his attention on colors, especially violent
colors. Rosso Fiorentino after his stay in France, learnt a lot
about the french style, for this reason, he’s considered the
“liason” between the Italian culture and The Fountainbleu Mannerism.
Giorgio Vasari, who
worked in Florence created the theoric principles of a New
Classicism, using Michelangelo’s works as a symbol of perfection.
environment in Rome was very influenced by Vasari’s sense of
In Emilia, after
Correggio (affreschi si San Giovanni) another great exponent of the
Mannerism was Parmigianino (Madonna dal Collo Lungo).
The italian artistic
environment in this period is really hard to synthetize in one
single style or artist.
Alberti , Bramante and then Palladio showed in their architectural
works the most important and beautiful expression of the Neoclassic
In this century Italy
started to extend its influence all across Europe.
A lot of cities in the
Netherlands were rebuilt following the rules of Classicism The
painting increased its imprtance with two great artists: Pieter
Bruegel and Jeronimus Bosch.
These two paiters added
to the classic style, the use of small details and the grotesque
In Germany the most
important representatives of this artistic period were: Durer, Lukas
Cranash, Mathias Grunewald, Haus Holbein.
The Spanish Art in the
second half of the century reached a great level of importance and
prestige. Domenico Theotocopulos (El Greco) was one of the biggest
representatives of the Spanish Art and after his stay in Venice he
learned Michelangelo’s innovative concept of space.
In China, the Ming
Empire gave a lot of prominence to the Artistic development,
especially the ceramics manufacture.
About the painting, the
artistic school “Wu” introduced the use of new colors like pale
yellow and blue.
In Central America
dates back to 1500 the last works of the Azteca art.