1800 the first great artistic movement was the Romanticism.
It developed in the first half of
the century and it included many kinds of art: Poetry, literature
theatre and music. It represented a mutation of taste and thoughts,
a rejection of all the ideals and classifications of Beauty.
The Romanticism gave more
confidence to the expression of personal creativity; it started as
free expression of every single artist, of his personal and
the political and cultural
situation in Europe, the French Revolution and the “Napoleonic
Epopea” are considered causes and effects of this artistic movement.
The use of classic forms became
like a symbol of the Revolution and the use of bombastic forms
became the Symbol of “Napoleonic Era”.
Johann Joachim Winckelmann who
founded the new scientific Archeology, was a great representative of
Anton Raphael Mengs created a great
connection between the style of Raffaello, Correggio and Tiziano and
the typical art of the Ancient Greece and Pompei.
In Italy and especially in Rome,
the first reaction to the Neoclassicism was expressed by a
fraternity called “Nazzareni”. The most important representative of
this fraternity was Friedrick Overbeck who claimed an interest for
the pureness and the semplicity with mystic allusions.
The aspirations to a naive
Primitivism, that refused the late Renaissance did not have a great
success, because the destiny of the Neoclassic taste in Italy had a
strange development. Rome was the most important city for the art,
anyway the Neoclassic Art depended on the French Forms.
The only original Style were the
sculptore of Canova (Dedalo and Icaro, Paolina Borghese). that
showed a monumentality combined with a full refinement of the forms.
Another important sculptore was
Lorenzo Bartolini (La fiducia in Dio).
Fot how to concern the painting ,
Andrea Appiani was the most important representative, while Giuseppe
Piermarini was the greates architect.
The lastest works of Goya in Spain
(Affreschi della Quinta del Sordo) represented the change to a
The French Revolution gave Goya
some liberal thoughts that made him intolerant about the reactionary
When Napoleon invaded Spain, Goya
created his work “I disastri della Guerra”. In 1808 he got inspired
by a popular revolution and he painted “Le fucilazioni del 3 maggio”
(Museo del Prado).
In 1819 goya created his most
significant works, while he was deaf and ill. In his house in the
suburb (Casa del Sordo) there were many paintings. He got inspired
by terrible nightmares and horrible obsessions (Saturno che mastica
i fligli, Sabba delle Streghe).
The Great Britain had an important
role in the Romantic Period. Henry Fuselly arrived in London from
Rome and he started a renovation of the forms, that became more
significant with the activity if John Constable and William Turner.
The big Romantic Battle started in
France. In 1819 was announced the Romanticism when Theodore
Gericault showed his work “La Zattera della Medusa” a sort of
Manifest that gave prominence to a drammatic image. The work was
inspired by a real and tragic event.
The innovative factor was the
contrast between the human factor and the fury of the storm.
In 1824 Eugène Delacroix (La barca
di Dante) showed his style with deep and violent colors. The typical
romantic phenomenon developed in France, woth the School of Barbizon
(near the Forest of Fontainbleu) where a group of painters made a
great revolution of the Painting of Landascapes.
Charles Francois Daubigny was a
great exponent of this style, but the most important was Camille
Corot, that learned the tecniques of “bright Stains” in Italy.
The political and social situation
caused the intense activity of a lot of intellectuals in Europe.
Delacroix had been imitated by some
artists like Gustave Courbet (1849, Gli Spaccapietre),Honorè Daumier,
By the half of the century the
Orientation changed dramatically. The scientific discoveries gave
prominence to concrete sperimentations. The developments of
theScience tried to explain everything, none could accept the
The theories about the Evolution
developed a big sense of reality.
Coubert said that the painting is
something real, that tells concrete and real things.
The Realism was the starting-point
for a deeper and creative activity and for the establishment of new
Together with the Development of
this new culture, the “official” French art was based on the
The Realism became a very important
style all over Europe.
I Macchiaioli Toscani were the best
expression of the Realism.
From 1856 to 1861 they started to
paint th reality to express their opposition to the strict academic
style in Florence.
The most important artists in that
period were: Giuseppe Abbati, Odoardo Borrani,
Raffaello Sernesi, Vito d’Ancona,
Vincenzo Cabianca, Telemaco Signorini, Giovanni Fattori. The Realism
introduced some innovative points about the Representation, but not
about the tecniques.
In 1874 started a new style: the
Impressionism. Alot of painters who belonged to this style, refused
for their all activity to be called Impressionists.
The subjects of that style were
usual people, usual landscapes, familiar situations; the portrait
“en plain air” represented typical events of the life in Paris. The
style was not based on severe and fixed rules, like other movements
but it followed the feelings and
ideals of every single artists.
The antiacademic programm of Manet
was the symbol of that artistic period.
The Official Critic did not
appreciate Manet and his Style.
In 1870 started the war and many
artists decided to join the Army (Manet, Pisarro, Sisley).
Monet and Sisley started a new
phase of Impressionism with new tecniques and new experiments.
The Impressionism never had the
character of a organized style. After the Impressionism, the
Symbolism first started with Joseph Pélodan who was inspired by the
Paul Cezanne was the most important
painter of the second half of the century.
Vincent Van Gogh and
Henri-Toulouse-Lautrec are also great artists of 1800.
The school of Posillipo woth
Giacinto Gigante and the tradition of Naples celebrated the style of
“Verismo” with stains and quick touches, but no drawing.
Another important style “La
Scapigliatura” in Italy, became very important in that period
(Tranquillo Cremona and Daniele Ranzoni).
Antonio Fontanesi was the most
important among a group of artists that worked in Piemonte.
The one “Macchiaioli” was
absolutely the most important style in Italy. This particular branch
of the “Verismo” became the inspiration for a lot of painters:
Telemaco Signorini, Silvestro Lega, Giovanni Fattori, Nino Costa,
Giovanni Boldini, Vincenzo Cabianca, Francesco De Nittis.
The tecnique called “stain”
(macchia) was characterized by strong contrasts between light and
shadow, or between tones.
In Great Britain there was first a
return to the forms of 1400 and also to a neogothic style. Liberty
and the “Art Nouveau” became very important in 1900.
In Austria the Greatest
Representatives were Klimt and two Architects: Otto Wagner and
Joseph Maria Olbricht. In Spain the Architect Antonio Gaudì had a
huge success. In Italy the Liberty art did not have the same
success as in Europe, although Galileo Chini, Plinio Novellini,
Giuseppe Sommaruga and Gino Coppedè had been influenced a lot by